ACID - a chemical that is characterized with a reactive hydrogen ion and pH lower than 7

ADAPTATION - the genetic changes that take place in an organism that allow the organism to live and survive better in a certain environment

ANGIOSPERM - a flowering plant

ATRIUM - an upper chamber of a multi-chambered heart that receives blood that has circulated through the body

AMPHIBIAN - vertebrates that have smooth, moist skin, webbed feet, three chambered adult heart; eggs laid in water

ANIMAL - a multicellular organism that is capable of mobility, will eat its food, and usually reproduces sexually

ANNELID - the phylum of segmented, soft-bodied worms

AQUATIC - growing or living in or near water

ARM - the extension of the body from the to of the shoulders to the fingers

ARTERIES - blood vessels that transport oxygen rich blood away from the heart

ARTHROPODA - invertebrate animals that are segmented or jointed including insects, spiders, and crustaceans

ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION - the process by which an organism can make an exact copy of itself

AUXIN - a growth hormone found in plants



BABY - a small, miniature person that has not yet developed fully

BACKBONE - that part of the skeleton that is made up of vertebrae and serves as protection for the spinal cord and is located in the middle of the back

BACTERIA - a group of microscopic, one-celled monera with a primitive nucleus

BARNACLE - a member of the phylum Arthropoda that has a skeleton that adheres onto surfaces, and lives where it adheres to without moving

BARK - the tissues outside the vascular region of the stems and roots of plants

BASE - a chemical that is characterized as having a reactive hydroxide ion (OH) and a pH greater than 7

BEACH - the area where the land meets the water

BEAK - the projecting bill of a bird that is used to grasp food

BENTHOS - that animal habitat that is found at the bottom of the sea on the seafloor

BILL - a bird's beak

BIOME - a large geographical region identified mainly by its climax vegetation

BIRD - vertebrate animals that are capable of flight and have feathers

BIVALVE - a member of the phylum Mollusca that has a shell consisting of two shell halves joined together at a hinge

BLADE - a part of a leaf

BLOOD - the mixture of blood cells along with plasma, proteins, and antibodies; serves as the main transport mechanism of oxygen and disease fighting mechanisms

BLOOD PRESSURE - the amount of pressure exerted on the arterial walls by the blood

BLOOD VESSEL - a hollow tube-like structure that carries blood

BRAIN - the uppermost part of the nervous system that is made up of soft nervous tissue; controls muscular coordination, sense integration, thought and memory, and emotions

BREAD - a food made from flour and liquid, usually leavened by yeast and baked

BRONCHUS - a division of the lower end of the trachea, leading to a lung

BRYOPHYTE - nonvascular small, marine plants that are found in the tropics and require shade and moisture and are not well adapted to land environments (liverworts, hornworts, mosses)

BUG - an informal term referring to organism that belongs to the Phylum Arthropoda such as spiders, flies, caterpillars, and millipedes

BUDDING - a form of asexual reproduction in which an outgrowth of an organism pinches off and becomes another organism

BULB - a form of underground stem composed largely of thick scale leaves

BUTTERFLY - a member of the Lepidoptera that goes through a chrysalis stage rather than a cocoon stage in order to proceed with metamorphosis



CAFFEINE - a common drug that is found in coffee, soda, tea, chocolate that gives the user a sense of "wiredness".

CALORIE - a measure of food energy and the amount of heat necessary to raise one kilogram of water one degree Centigrade

CAPILLARIES - small blood vessels through which blood passes to tissues

CARBOHYDRATE - molecules made up of sugars that are used for energy by organisms

CARBON DIOXIDE - a gas that is used by plants in order to produce food

CARDIAC MUSCLE - smooth muscle that is found in the heart

CARNIVORE - a meat-eating organism

CELL - the basic structural and functional part of an organism

CELLULOSE - a complex carbohydrate that is the main component of the cell wall in most plants

CELL WALL - the outer membrane of a plant cell that selectively allows molecules in and out of the plant cell

CENTRIOLE - small structures within a cell that help pull apart the homologous pairs of chromosomes during cell division

CEREAL - a grass such as wheat, rye, oats, or rice, producing an edible grain

CHARACTERISTIC - a recognizable trait or habit of an organism

CHILDHOOD - the stage in growth of a baby that follows infancy which begins when the child can talk and walk and continues up until adolescence

CHLOROPHYLL - green pigments that are essential to photosynthetic food production in plants

CHLOROPLAST - a plant cell organelle that contains chlorophyll and is the site of photosynthesis

CHROMATIN - a mixture of DNA and protein

CHROMOSOME - a rod shaped gene-bearing body in the cell nucleus, composed of DNA joined to protein molecules.

CIRCULATORY SYSTEM - the group of organs responsible for the transport of blood and oxygen through the body

CLASSIFICATION - an arrangement of different organisms into separate groups based on their different characteristics

COMMUNITY - the interaction of various organisms in a habitat

CONIFER - those plants that produce cones

CONNECTIVE TISSUE - a type of tissue that lies between groups of nerve, gland, and muscle cells

CONSUMER - an organism that will eat another organism

CONTROL - the part of an experiment that is set up to illustrate a constant or unchanged (ie, normal) part of an experiment

CNIDARIA - a group of invertebrate marine animals that have sac-like bodies and stinging cells for defense

COAST - where the land meets the ocean on a continent

CORAL - a group that belongs to the phylum Cnidaria, that usually produces a thickened skeleton, that prefers to live in warm, shallow water

CORDGRASS - an abundant salt marsh plant that is found close to the water in the wettest areas

CURLY - referring to hair that is more tightly wound than curly hair

CYTOPLASM - the fluid contained within the membranes of a cell



DECOMPOSER - an organism that will break down dead organic matter

DEEP - water deeper than 200 feet

DEEP OCEAN - that part of the ocean that is deeper that 200 feet

DEFOLIANT - to strip of leaves

DEMOGRAPHY - the study of the population dynamics of any organism

DICOT - a plant that has two cotyledon and generally has marked netted venation of leaves and flower parts in groups of four or five

DICOTYLEDON - a seed plant in which the seed has two cotyledons

DIET - composition of food intake

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM - those organs and body parts that are responsible for the break down of complex food molecules into smaller, water soluble molecules

DIPLOID CELL - a cell produced by mitosis that has 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes

DISEASE - a condition in which one or more parts of an organism are not functioning as they should. A disease is often induced by a virus or bacteria

DISORDER - a disturbance of the normal working or functioning of the body or mind

DISPERSAL - a mechanism that plants used to transport seeds

DIVERSITY - many organisms

DNA - (deoxyribonucleic acid) a complex molecular structure that contains the genetic code and hereditary information

DOCTOR - a person who is qualified to diagnose a disease, disorder, or deficiency, and prescribe a treatment or medicine

DOMINANT - a gene trait that will prevent a recessive trait from appearing

DROUGHT - a time of continuous dry weather when water reserves are at extreme lows

DRUG - any chemical that alters body or brain functions



ECHINODERMATA - this group of invertebrate animals typically has a five armed pattern with brittle bodies and circular holes that allow for the entrance and exit of food and wastes

ECOLOGY - the study of the relationship of living things to their surroundings

ECOSYSTEM - a unit of the biosphere in which living and nonliving things interact, and in which materials are used over and over again

EGG CELL - the female reproductive cell that joins with the sperm cell. The egg cell is developed by meiosis and therefore haploid

EMBRYO - an early developmental stage in which the main body parts of the species are not yet recognizable

ENDEMIC - naturally occurring or occurring in a specific area

ENDOCRINE SYSTEM - those body parts that are responsible for the production and maintenance of hormone levels in an organism

ENERGY - something that is needed in order to maintain the needs of body cells and body functions and is usually derived from a food source

ENVIRONMENT - the surroundings of an organism

ENZYME - a chemical compound that increases the rate of a naturally occurring chemical reaction but is not changed during the reaction

EPITHELIAL TISSUE - tissue that composes the lining of body organs and the covering of the body surface

EROSION - the processes that cause rocks and soil to be carried away from an original deposition area to another area

ESOPHAGUS - the food tube, or gullet, that connects the mouth and the stomach

EUPHORIC DRUG - a drug that induces a general sense of well-being

EVOLUTION - the process by which an organism changes and adapts through time

EXCITANT - a drug that gives a sensation of what is commonly referred to as a "buzz."

EXCRETORY SYSTEM - those organs and body parts that are responsible for the removal of metabolic and nitrogenous wastes from an organism

EXTINCTION - the disappearance of a population as a result of the total failure of any individuals within it to reproduce the unique genotypes which it contained

EYE - the organ used for sight



FAT - molecules that are composed of glycerol and fatty acids

FEMUR - the heaviest, longest, and strongest bone in the human body that connects to the pelvis and patella

FERTILITY - the ability of a soil to support the growth of plants

FERTILIZATION - the creation of a zygote by the joining of a sperm cell and egg cell during sexual reproduction

FETUS - a mammalian embryo that exhibits the main body features of the species

FIBER - a threadlike strand of which animal and vegetable tissue or a textile substance is made

FILTER FEEDER - an organism that removes food from water by filtering the water through small tubes, holes, or gills

FINGER - extensions of the hands that consist of the phalanges

FINGERPRINT - the patterns on the fingers that are used as an identification source

FISH - vertebrates that live entirely in water, have an air bladder, breath through gills, have fins, a lateral line, and fertilize externally

FLEX - to bend a joint or limb

FLEXIBILITY - possessing the ability to bend a joint or limb

FLOWER - the sexual reproductive part of an angiosperm

FOLLICLE - an indention in the skin from which hair grows

FOOD CHAIN - the transfer of the sun's energy from producers to consumers as organisms feed on one another

FOOD PYRAMID - a graph that shows the various trophic levels of a food chain

FOOD STORAGE - the packaging of food in the form of simple sugars by a plant for later use

FOOD WEB - complex food chains existing within an ecosystem

FOOT - that part of the body that is connected to the leg and that serves as a balancing mechanism

FRUIT - the seed-containing part of a plant

FUEL - an energy source

FUNGI - an organism that absorbs its food

FUR - short, fine, soft hair covering the bodies of some animals



GARBAGE - anything that is non-useable or non-desirable.

GASTROPOD - a member of the phylum Mollusca that has a specialized muscular organ called a "foot" that is used for movement

GENE - a small section of a chromosome that codes for one specific genetic function

GENOTYPE - the genetic makeup of an organism

GENETICS - the study of the processes by which characteristics are passed on through reproduction to progeny and how these mechanisms can be altered or repaired

GERMINATION - the growth of a seed that occurs when favorable conditions prevail

GLAND - a body part that pours secretions into the body to help regulate body functions

GRANITE - an light colored igneous rock

GROWTH - a body activity that causes and organism to increase in size

GYMNOSPERM - those plants whose seeds develop exposed on the upper scales of cone scales



HABITAT - the place where an organism lives

HAIR - fine, threadlike strands that grow from the skin of people and animals

HALLUCINOGEN - a drug that causes the users to feel senses or see objects that are not really present

HAND - that part of the body that contains the fingers and is used to hold and grasp

HAPLOID CELL - a cell that is produced by meiosis in which there is one half the number of chromosomes that a mitotic cell would have

HEAD - the part of a human that contains the brain, and major sense organs

HEART - the organ that pumps oxygenated blood to the body and pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs where it receives oxygen

HERBICIDE - a chemical plant killer

HERBIVORE - a plant eating organism

HEREDITY - the study of the passing of traits from one generation to another

HOMOLOGOUS CHROMOSOME - a set of paternal and maternal chromosomes

HORMONE - a chemical in an organism that controls a specific function

HUMUS - organic matter in the soil formed by the decomposition of plant and animal remains

HYBRID - a mixture of genetic material from two different organisms



INDIVIDUAL - particular organism within a community or environment

INFANCY - the growth stage of a human baby that ends when the baby can walk and talk

INHERITANCE - the process by which an individual receives traits from both father and mother through sexual reproduction in which two haploid cells form a diploid cells

INSECT - a small arthropod that has three body segments often with wings

INTESTINE - the part of the digestive system where the food is absorbed into the body

INVERTEBRATE - an organism that lacks a spinal cord and vertebral column

INVOLUNTARY MUSCLE - those muscles, such as the cardiac and intestinal muscles, that are controlled by the nervous system and cannot be controlled at an organism's will



JAW - the part of the skull that holds the teeth



KIDNEY - organs that eliminate urea, nitrogenous wastes, excess sugars, excess salts, excess acids and bases, and maintain proper salt and osmotic balances

KINGDOM - a group of organisms that share common traits that is used in the modern classification system



LAND - the crust of the earth that is not covered with water

LARGE INTESTINE - the part of the intestine, also referred to as the colon, that is responsible for the absorption of water from undigestible material and the subsequent removal of this material (feces).

LARYNX - the voice box or "Adam's apple" that is responsible for the creation of sound through the vibration of vocal cords

LEAF - the principal lateral appendage of the stem of the plant, which functions in photosynthesis and transpiration and produces lateral buds in its axil

LEAF LITTER - debris left by a decomposing leaf

LEG - that part of the body that is connected to the pelvis and is responsible for movement

LIGHT - energy produced by the sun that is used by plants to produce food

LIVER - the largest organ in the human body, associated with digestion and sugar metabolism, detoxification of poisonous substances, and the breakdown of red blood cells in the adult

LIVING - something that can carry out such processes as irritability, reproduction, growth, energy consumption, variation, and adaptation

LOAM - a soil mixture consisting of gravel, sand, silt, or clay

LOWER LEG - that part of the leg that is below the patella

LUNG - an organ that is involved in the intake of oxygen and donation of this oxygen to deoxygenated blood which can be sent to the body via the heart



MARINE - a water based environment

MEAT - animal flesh that is used for food

MEDICINE - a chemical substance that is used to treat or cure a disease, deficiency, or disorder in an organism

MEIOSIS - the process of cell division in which a diploid spermatocyte or oocyte divides into four haploid sex cells

METAMORPHOSIS - the stage in the life cycle of an organism in which the larval form undergoes rapid transformation to the adult form

MILK - nutrient material that is secreted from the mammary glands in mammals

MINERAL - inorganic molecules such as sodium, potassium, calcium, and phosphorous that are used for many vital body functions

MICROBE - a microscopic organism, especially one that causes disease or fermentation

MITOCHONDRIA - the cell organelle responsible for the production of ATP which is used as an energy source by the cell and responsible for cellular respiration

MITOSIS - the process of cell division in which one diploid mother cell divides into two diploid daughter cells that are identical

MOLD - a fine, furry growth of very small fungi forming on things that lie in moist, warm air

MOLLUSCA - a group of organisms that commonly have hard, calcareous shells, curved or twisted bodies, one or two shell parts, and are often used for food

MONERA - one celled organisms that lack a true membrane bound nucleus

MONOCOT - a plant that has one cotyledon and generally has marked parallel leaf venation and flower parts in groups of 3's or multiples

MONOCOTYLEDON - a seed plant in which the seed has only one cotyledon

MORPHOLOGY - the study of the form of animals and plants

MOTH - a member of the Lepidoptera that forms a cocoon in order to proceed with metamorphosis

MUSCLE - a type of tissue made up of muscle cells that can cause movement by contraction and expansion

MUSCLE TISSUE - tissue that is made up of muscle cells that are specialized to contract and cause movement

MUTATION - a spontaneous change in the genetic code



NATIVE SPECIES -  plants and animal species that have evolved in a specific area over a period of time; naturally occurring species; indigenous

NATURAL - not altered by humans

NATURAL ENVIRONMENT - an environment that has not been altered or affected by humans

NEAR SHORE - that area of the water that is nearest land

NEKTON - those organisms that actively swim in a sea or lake

NERVE TISSUE - tissue composed of specialized cells (neurons) that can transmit impulses for coordination, perception, or autonomic body functions

NERVOUS SYSTEM - those organs and body parts that are irritable and respond to stimuli and changes in an organism's environment

NICHE - the role that an organism plays in an environment

NOCTURNAL - an organism that is active during the night such as an owl

NON-LIVING - anything that cannot carry out the processes that a living organism can

NON-VASCULAR PLANT - plants that do not contain the conducting tissue made up of the xylem and phloem

NUCLEAR ENVELOPE - the double membrane that surrounds the nucleus

NUCLEUS - the part of the cell that stores the genetic material and controls cell activity

NUTRIENT - a chemical that is used for food or energy



OMNIVORE - a plant and meat eating organism

ORGAN - a group of similar body tissues that perform certain body functions like the heart and liver

ORGANELLE - the functioning parts of a cell that perform specific activities like the nucleus and mitochondria

ORGANIC MATTER - that part of the soil that consists of animal wastes and decomposing organisms and structures

ORGANISM - a complete and entire living thing that is capable of reproduction

ORGAN SYSTEM - a group of organs forming a functional unit



PATHOGEN - a particle or organism that causes a disease

PELLET - the remains of an organism that have been spit out by an owl

PELVIS - that part of the skeletal system that consists of the pubis, ilium, ischium, and protects the bladder

PETAL - the part of a flower that is often brightly colored or ornamented and is used to attract insects for the purpose of cross pollination

PETIOLE - that part of a leaf that connects the blade to the stem

pH - the measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions in a chemical

PHENOTYPE - what an organism looks like

PHLOEM CELL - the principal food conducting tissue in a plant

PHOTOSYNTHESIS - the conversion of light energy into chemical energy by plants

PHOTOTROPISM - light-induced growth

PHYLUM - a group of organisms that have common traits and that descended from a common ancestor

PICKLEWEED - a salt tolerant plant that lives by salt marshes

PINE CONE - that part of a gymnosperm that contains the reproductive seeds

PITUITARY GLAND - an endocrine gland that regulates the growth of the skeleton, the development of the sex organs, secretions of the mammary glands, and adrenal glands

PLANKTON - minute plants and animals that float in the surface waters of a sea or lake

PLANT - an organism that can produce its own food by using energy from light

PLANT PRODUCT - those items of economic value that are made out of plants

PLASMA - the liquid portion of the blood

PLASMA MEMBRANE - a thin, living membrane located at the outer edge of the cytoplasm

PLATELET - cells that form blood clots

POLLEN - a structure produced in plants that is vital to reproduction

POLYP - a sedentary form of the Cnidaria which has a cylindrical body attached to a substrate

POPULATION - the amount of organisms living in a community or environment

POPULATION BIOLOGY - the study of the growth and structure of populations together with the factors that regulate their size and cause fluctuations in their density

PORIFERA - a group of sessile marine organisms that are commonly referred to as sponges

PREDATORY - referring to an organism that feeds upon another organism

PREGNANCY - the period of gestation of a species in which the mother carries the developing offspring in the womb

PREY - an organism that is used for food by another organism

PRIMARY CONSUMER - a heterotrophic organism in an ecosystem that ingests other organisms or organic matter. Primary consumers feed on primary producers

PRIMARY PRODUCER - an autotrophic organism in an ecosystem which synthesizes complex organic substances from simple inorganic materials

PRODUCER - an organism, typically a plant, that will produce food for itself and serve as food for a consumer

PROTEIN - complex organic molecules composed of amino acids that are used for nutrition, growth, and body repair

PROTOZOA - a one-celled organism that can eat its food

PULSE - the expansion of the walls of the arteries caused by the beating of the heart




RAPTOR - a bird of prey

RECESSIVE - a gene trait that will not appear when a dominant trait is present

RED BLOOD CELLS - blood cells that carry oxygen to the body

REFLEX - a nervous reaction in which a stimulus causes the passage of a sensory nerve impulse to the spinal cord or brain, from which, involuntarily, a motor impulse is transmitted to a muscle or gland

REPRODUCTION - the process by which a new organism is created

REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM - those organs and body parts that are responsible for the creation of a new organism

REPTILES - organisms that have a body covered with scales, dry skin, limbs with claws, partial division of ventricle, well developed air breathing lungs, varying body temperature

REQUIREMENTS - those conditions that are vital and necessary to an organism's life

RESPIRATION - the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen between and organism and its surroundings

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM - those organs that are responsible for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the cells and their surroundings

RESTORATION - the renewing or repairing of a natural system so that its functions and qualities are comparable to its original, unaltered state

RNA - (ribonucleic acid) the messenger of DNA that carries the genetic code to the ribosomes where it is processed into proteins

ROOT - the part of the axis of a vascular plant that is concerned with anchorage and the absorption of water and minerals

ROT - to lose an original form by chemical action caused by bacteria or fungi, etc.,



SALT GRASS - salt tolerant grass that appears near salt marshes

SAND DOLLAR - a member of the phylum Echinodermata that has a hard, flattened, circular shell with a five-armed pattern on one side and an indented opening on the inner side

SCALE - the epidermal plates forming the outer covering in fishes and reptiles

SEA URCHIN - a member of the phylum Echinodermata that has a semi-spherical body shape and characteristic spines that are used as a defense mechanism and for food trapping

SECONDARY CONSUMER - a heterotrophic organism in an ecosystem that ingests other organisms or organic matter. Secondary consumers feed on primary consumers

SEED - a complete embryo plant surrounded by an endosperm and protected by seed coats

SEED COAT - the covering of a seed that protects the embryo and the endosperm

SENSES - the group of five kinds of responses to stimuli which includes touch, sight, smell, hearing, and taste

SERPENTINITE - a green colored metamorphic rock

SEXUAL REPRODUCTION - the process by which two haploid cells produced from meiosis join to form a new diploid cell. A sperm cell and an egg come together to form a zygote

SHALLOW - that area of water that is close to land and not very deep

SHELL - the outer covering commonly found among Mollusca that is composed of calcium carbonate

SHRIMP - a member of the phylum Arthropoda that lives in the water and has a three segment body

SHRUB - a woody plant smaller than a tree and usually divided into separate stems from near the ground

SIZE - the amount of growth that has taken place in an organism

SKELETAL MUSCLES - striated muscle that can be controlled by an organism and are called voluntary muscles

SKELETAL SYSTEM - those parts of an organism that are responsible for providing support, form, surfaces for muscle attachment, protection of delicate organs, and the manufacture of certain blood cells

SKELETON - the bones of the body that act to form a support for the body and provide for the protection of vital organs and as a site for muscle attachment

SKIN - the largest organ in the body that is responsible for, the protection of the body from mechanical injury and the maintenance of moisture in inner tissues and organs,

SKULL - that part of the skeleton that is connected to the neck

SLIMY - feeling slippery and wet

SMALL INTESTINE - the part of the intestine that is responsible for the digestion of food molecules and the absorption of nutrients into the body

SMOOTH MUSCLE - (visceral muscle) muscle that is controlled by parts of the nervous system and cannot be controlled by an organism. This type of muscle is also called involuntary muscle

SOIL CONSERVATION - a plan to save natural resources in the soil by controlling how they are used

SOIL PROFILE - a cross section of the upper part of the earth that shows how the soil evolved from the original rock by the addition or subtraction of organic matter

SPECIES - a unit used in the classification system in which the members of a species can interbreed with each other

SPERM CELL - the male reproductive cell that joins with the female egg cell. The sperm cell is produced in meiosis and is haploid

SPIDER - a member of the phylum Arthropoda that has a body divided into two segments and 8 legs

SPINAL CORD - the main dorsal nerve of the central nervous system in vertebrates, extending down the back from the medulla

SPONGE - a porous, often soft-bodied, organism that lives in the ocean and belongs to the phylum Porifera

SPORE - an asexual reproductive cell

STARCH - sugar that is stored as food for later use in plants

STARCH GRAIN - a storage area for starch in plants

STEM - the part of the vascular plant axis that bears the leaves, axillary buds, and flowers, all comprising the shoot

STOMACH - an organ that receives ingested food, prepares this food for digestion, and begins protein digestion using acids and enzymes found in the stomach

STRAIGHT - referring to hair that is not curly or wavy



TAXONOMY - the science of classifying living things

TASTE - one of the five senses that is responsible for recognizing the flavor of an object

TASTE BUDS - flask-shaped structures in the tongue containing nerve endings that are stimulated by flavors

TEETH - the structures that are connected to the jaw that help to chew food

TERRESTRIAL - concerning land

THALLOPHYTE - nonvascular small to medium plants that are marine and found in cold to warm water (algae, diatoms, kelp)

TISSUE - a group of similar cells working together to perform a specific function like epithelium and nerve tissue

TONGUE - the organ of taste that aids in chewing, swallowing, speaking, and cleaning teeth

TOPSOIL - the uppermost layer of soil that is best able to support the growth of plants

TRACHEA - (windpipe) the tube through which air flows to the lungs

TRACHEOPHYTE - large, vascular plants that live moderate conditions, have long roots, produce seeds, and require direct sunlight (horsetails, ferns, conifers, and flowering plants)

TRACKS - footprints left behind by an animal

TRANSPIRATION - the loss of water vapor from the surface of a plant

TROPHIC LEVEL - a feeding level within a food chain

TROPICAL - pertaining to areas near the equator that are warm, humid, and very diverse in fauna and flora

TRUNK - (human biology) that part of the body that consists of everything except the head and limbs

TRUNK - (plant biology) a massive primary stem of a tree located between the roots and upper tree canopy



UPPER LEG - that part of the leg above the knee



VACCINE - a substance that contains weak or dead pathogens that went introduced into an organism allows that organism to create antibodies that will destroy the pathogen

VACUOLES - one of the spaces scattered through the cytoplasm of a cell and containing fluid

VASCULAR PLANTS - plants that contain the conducting tissue made up of the xylem and phloem

VEGETABLE - a plant of which some part is used as food

VEINS - blood vessels that transport deoxygenated blood to the heart in animals or water and minerals in plants

VENTRICLE - a muscular lower chamber of a multichambered heart that pumps blood

VIRUS - a non-living, microscopic particle that uses a host cell to reproduce and code a genetic sequence that disrupts the genetic sequence of the host cell causing malfunctioning or destruction of the cell

VITAMINS - organic substances that are often not produced by the body but are necessary for proper body development and function

VOLUNTARY MUSCLE - those muscles, such as the biceps and triceps, that can be controlled at an organism's will



WATER - the most abundant compound found in organisms which makes up about 95% of the substance of every living thing

WAVY - hair that is slightly curled

WET - covered or saturated with water

WHITE BLOOD CELLS - nucleated blood cells that defend the body against infection

WOOD - the xylem part of a plant

WOOD PULP - crushed-up remains of wood

WRIST - that part of the skeleton that connects the radius and ulna to the hand



XYLEM CELLS - the principal water conducting tissue in plants