Script for
Physics of Toys

This slideshow is designed for lower primary.  It is meant to guide your presentation, but does not go into each slide in depth. This introduces students to the forces of nature that influence our life.   The main focus however is gravity.  Since lower primary do not really understand electromagnetic forces on toys they are referred to as electricity, magnetisms, and light.

Slide 1.
 Physics of Toys
How does a ball work (gravity)? How does a gyroscope work (spinning, antigravity)? You may have to describe a gyroscope and how it works, many students have not seen one. 
·       Notice it goes back and forth without falling, spinning resists gravity

Slide 2.  What is a toy?
Define a toy.
·       The earliest known toys are dolls.   The Russian toys would nestle into each other. Puppets are also a form of dolls.

Slide 3.  History of toys

·       Early toys found in the graves of children in Egypt.
·       The drawing with hieroglyphs depicts a father giving his children toys. The toys are engineered to move by the addition of pull strings.
·       They depicted things people saw or did. A frog opening its mouth and a person grinding seeds into flour

Slide 4.  Yo Yo
Second oldest known toy is the western yo-yo. How does it work (spinning)? What is pulling it down (gravity)? What is pulling it up (antigravity)?  Chinese yo-yo also uses gravity and spinning to defy gravity.
·       There is evidence that they were developed around the same time.  Both are used today. Demo: yo-yo and Chinese yo-yo and explain how it works. The main point here is motion is antigravity. 

Slide 5. Define Physics
·       Define physics – it is the study of matter, its motion and its behavior. Essentially it describes how the world works. Who makes toys (physicists)? You have to know about physics to make toys.

Slide 6.  Why does a ball fall?
The ball falls because of gravity. What are balls made of? Rubber and Morning Glory juice, it was discovered that this combination of materials allows it to bounce (antigravity).
·       Demo: Ball – Why does it fall (gravity)?  Why does it bounce?  It invented with a special rubber mixture (mixed with morning glory juice.) ·       Demo: Ball and Track - will the ball stay on the track if I do not move? No, it will fall due to gravity. I can defy gravity by spinning the ball around the track

Slide 7.  Principles of gravity
Other principles that make toys work. We will be exploring motion, magnets and gears.
Demo: Hula-hoop – how does it work? It uses energy of motion to defy gravity.
Demo: Music-box – what is happening? The winding of gears creates motion and the magnets follow it.

Slide 8.  Other types of toys
·       Pull toys use springs, the pulling creates energy – mechanical energy. Kaleidoscope uses light. Electronic toys use electricity.

Slide 9. Most toys today are run by electricity
·      Electricity is the flow of electrons; it powers electronic games.  In this presentation we will not go into toys that use electricity, since that is many.  Anything that uses a battery is electronic. Video games need the physics of electricity to work.

Slide 10.  Magnetism
North and South  like each other, they attract. North and North or South and South repel each other

Slide 11.  Light 
Another type of toy uses light. What do you use to see yourself in the morning? (mirror). When you look in the mirror you see yourself because light bounce off you and then bounces off the mirror and into your eye. Your brain makes sense of the light you see reflecting off the mirror.
·       Briefly mention refraction (light bending) and diffraction (light spreading out) as other ways light waves can move.
·       Optical illusions that you see in a Fun House uses light.

Slide 12.  Electromagnetism is a force.
·       Electromagnetism is Electricity, and Magnetism, and it includes Light. Toys that use electromagnetism are relatively new, they only became mass produced a few decades ago.

Slide 13.  Gravity 
·       Gravity is a different force. Most of the toys you experimented with worked with gravity. On earth we experience gravity all the time.

Slide 14.   Gravity
Gravity on earth attracts objects toward the center. Mention Sir Isaac Newton (3rd law). If we throw a ball on earth what happens? Gravity would pull it back down. Would the same thing happen on the moon? The lowered gravity would allow it to travel further before being pulled down.

Slide 15.  Different Type of Balls and Gravity
Balls are designed to resist gravity. This is done by putting spin on the ball (think gyroscope and antigravity).
Footballs are thrown so that they spin, What does a quarterback in football know about how to make the ball go farther - spinning motion of a football to reinforce concept of antigravity.
·       Basketballs also are thrown with spin, soccer balls have flat surfaces so that there is a good surface to kick, and baseballs have a cork core surrounded by twine so that they are very dense and can travel further

Slide 16.  Gears
Physics explains the world around us.  Mechanics uses an understanding of physics to move or create work. 
Gears transfer motion and force from one rotating shaft to another.
Gears is an example of producing movement.  Robots are an example of a design to produce movement.

Slide 17.  Design of Structures
Review with students that larger items are also designed  by engineers using the principles of physics . 
Go over each of the items and the principles they use. 
When they take Physics in high school it will help them understand the principles more.

Slide 18.  Gears
When you ride a bike you push on the petal with your foot, and a chain and gears helps you make the tires move and you go forward.
·      Can demonstrate the jack-in-the box and music box again

Slide 19. Design of Play Structures
Remind students that physics explains the real world. 
·       When they go to the playground have them look around and see how they work and to remember and engineer or scientists designed them.