Script for

This slideshow is designed for mutiple grades. This is meant as an introduction of elements, molecules, ion and compounds.  It goes over what is matter and the different states.  It enforces the idea that matter is not always well defined and illustrates the changeablity of states of matter.  Can be used in lower grades as well as review for upper grades


Slide 1.    Matter

·       Matter refers to everything around us.  The air we breathe is matter, the food we eat is matter.

·       The periodic table of the elements is all matter

·       Elements can be found normally in one state of matter, for example mercury is liquid, hydrogen is gas

Slide 2.  Key Concepts - Matter

·       It occupies space and volume

·       Includes atoms and molecules of elements

·       Found in different forms 3 common ones are solid liquid and gas

·       In the universe these are common forms: Plasma and Bose-Einstein Condensate

·       And there are more

Slide 3.  States of Matter  

·       3 common earth: solid, liquid, gas

·       2 common space: plasma, Bose-Einstein Condensate

·       Solid -  The molecules that make up a solid are arranged in regular repeating patterns.  They are held firmly in place but can vibrate within a limited area.

·       Liquid – The molecules that make up a liquid flow easily around one another.  They are kept from flying apart by attractive forces between them.  Liquids assume the shape of the container.

·       Gas – The molecules that make up a gas fly in all directions at great speeds.  They are so far apart that the attractive forces between them are insignificant.

·       Plasma – At the very high temperatures of stars, atoms lose their electrons.  The mixture of electrons and nuclei that results in the plasma state of matter.

·       Bose Einstein Condensate is not represented in the

Slide 4. Matter is made of Atoms

·        Basic building block of atoms are quarks
Electrons orbit on outside; protons and neutrons inside the nucleus
·       Protons and neutrons made of quarks
Comes in 6 different flavors (ups, downs, etc. like in animation)
Stable when electrons = protons
Unstable when not equal called an ion

Slide  5  Ions

·       If uneven protons and electrons

·       Formed when adding or losing electrons

·       Can be positive or negative

·       Gives element/compound a charge

·       Can interact with other elements/compounds

·       Ion would take the property of the compound and not the element

·       Sodium is a white solid that is vey reactive to water and can cause a bomb interaction;  chlorine is a gas that is deadly to many organisms;   put them together  (they attract into an ionic bond, they form salt)

Slide 6. Elements and their Molecule Compounds

·       Elements are made of same atoms

·       Compounds are made of same elements

·       Elements on periodic table are not found, not stable

Slide 7.  Compounds and their Molecule

·       A molecule is neutral or stable

·       Can be atoms of same element  or atoms of multiple elements

·       A compound has a unit configuration that attract other like molecules

Slide 8.  Molecules

·       Molecules of same attract each other

·       Can be found in different states of mater

·       Water can be solid, liquid, or gas on earth

Slide 9.    Solid

·       Molecules packed closely together

·       Motion on molecular level is limited

·       Many substances on earth are solids from rocks to wood

·       Solids keep their shape

Slide 10.  Liquid

·       Molecules move faster

·       Rate of atoms and molecules increases

·       Takes on shape of container

·       Flows and changes shape easily

Slide 11.  Gas

·       Molecules spread out so more space between, go faster because they “warm” up

·       If more energy is put into the material, it vibrates into a higher state

·       No fixed shape or volume

·       Take up size of container

Slide  12  Plasma

·       Quasineutral gas of charged and neutral particles which exhibit a collective behavior

·       Collective stripped electrons

·       Example is charged neon gas, plasma on surface of sun

·       Abundant form of matter in the universe

Slide 13. Bose-Einstein Condensate  

·       All matter behaves like waves which can be observed at extremely low temperatures

·       Would encounter is cold reaches of the universe, have to simulate in the lab

Slide 14.  Matter behaves differently

·       Temperature and pressure (and many other factors) can change how matter reacts

·       Chemists are always looking for new application of matter in different states

·       Whipped cream when comes fluffy and then turns to liquid

·       Water can be in several states for matter from ice, steam to liquid

·       Fluids can act differently

Slide  15.  Can matter change its state of matter?

·       States of  matter are not fixed and can change just on how you interact with it

·       On Earth there are 3 states of matter that are common, but that is not true for other states

·       As we explore other conditions physicists are finding other states

·       Science is always evolving

Slide 16. Matter Interacts

·       Matter interacts at the molecular level

·       Animations show water that has a strong bond, can take a weaker ionic bond and (in this case) dissolve

·       Produces new substances

·       Ions are charged particles with uneven number of protons and electrons