Volume III

Joyce R. Blueford, Ph.D.

ART WORK: Rita Anselmo, Joyce R. Blueford
: Doris Raia, Scott Hassler
WEB DESIGN: David Lundeen, Doris Raia


Debbie Davidson, BS, Wildlife Biology
Susan Dutcher, BS, Education
James Gonzales, BS, M.D. Chemistry, Surgery
Jo Marshal, MS, Plant Biology
Angela Montez, MS, Urban Planning
Katherine Keleher, MS, Education
Cherse LeBlanc, BS, Environmental Science
Scott Hassler, Ph.D.


Since 1983 the concepts presented in this teacher manual have been developed and tested at three elementary schools in the San Francisco Bay Area (Blacow elementary, Fremont; Ronald McNair Intermediate, East Palo Alto; and Federal Terrace, Vallejo). Special thanks to John Melendez, then principal at Blacow elementary school in Fremont who allowed this innovative program to be tested first at his school. The teachers, students, and parents at these school have helped tremendously to develop and pilot these lesson plans. Grants from the Gerbode Foundation, San Francisco Foundation, Stulsaft, and the California License Plate Program helped provide funds in the development of many of these units. The Hewlett Packard donated a desktop publishing system which has been invaluable in creating a visually pleasing manual. The Minority Participation in the Earth Science Program of the U.S. Geological Survey provided not only financial support, but also contributed many resources in piloting this program in low-income area schools. Jane Wallace of the U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia supported this project to get it established. Chevron, U.S.A. provided funds to update this manual in 1990, which adds new information and updated activities for students. National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Agency (NOAA) provided the models of the volcanoes and earthquakes that occur in the Earth. Volunteers from the Math/Science Nucleus have provided endless hours to get the I. Science Mate program in elementary schools. These laboratory exercises have been tested and revised many times, to provide materials for teachers that work.

This book would not have been possible without the help and assistance from Angela Montez, Jo Marshall, Susan Dutcher, James Gonzales, Yolanda Williams, Cherse LeBlanc, Leslie Gordon, Elizabeth Looney, Renata Tervalon, Rip Goudy, Jennifer Duran, Linda Flores, Sara Tarr Weaver, Milagro Orantes, Bob Berringer, Forrest Dobbs, Mary Binkley, Alicia Freeborn, Elizabeth Ramsey, Cecelia Leon, Cheryl Blea, Gilbert Yee, Gail Patterson. Phyllis Beyer, Joyce Green, Norma Richey, Phyllis Meyer, Christine Walker, Eva Pennington, Pat Heer, Celmira Blea, Eleanor Petker, Mary Juba, Margaret Ritchie, Sylvia Hardy, Kathryn K. Ross, Marilyn McCabe, and all the other countless people who helped with the development and dissemination of this program.

Thanks to Tau Rho alpha, U.S. Geological Survey for constructing the volcano and earthquake three dimensional models.

I would like to thank all the students at Blacow Elementary School (1984-1987) in Fremont and Ronald McNair Intermediate School (1985-1989) in East Palo Alto that gave us insight on how to teach plate tectonics effectively, while still having fun.


We would also like to thank the following organizations, companies, and individuals who have provided graphics for this electronic version.

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