The next two weeks will concentrate on the human biology,
which includes the different organs and systems in humans. Students should
be familiar with the structure of the human body, as well as the different
tissues that combine to make different organs such as the heart and lungs.
In addition, students should know the organs that combine into systems
such as the skeletal system or digestive system. Each student should
be familiar with the interior of his or her own body.
Human bodies vary slightly from person to person, not
only in the visible aspects of size and shape but also in the placement
of internal organs. Human bodies, however, follow a general pattern
and no part of the human body works in isolation. Each body part
does its job, day and night, supported and aided by all the other organs.
It is important for students to understand their bodies in order to take
care of them. The sixth graders need to understand how their bodies
grow. Students are at an age when many changes will be taking place.
A factual presentation of their bodies' structure will help them not only
understand but cope with the changes that they will experience.
Endocrine glands control many of the body's functions through
chemical substances called hormones. Endocrine glands are ductless,
pouring hormones directly into the bloodstream. Some organs, such
as the pancreas, produce hormones. The hormones produced by
the glands of the endocrine system signal the body to grow, sleep, eat,
and provide changes needed for reproduction.
The glands of the endocrine system include the pituitary, thymus,
thyroid, and adrenal. On the worksheet the students can locate these
glands. The thymus gland controls activities of the spleen and the
lymph glands which are important in the immune system. The thyroid
gland produces a hormone that regulates the metabolic rate. Each
of the adrenal glands provide hormones for emotions such as fright or anger.
This reaction is responsible for the extraordinary feats of strength that
people sometimes perform in emergencies.
The pituitary gland is important because it produces many growth
hormones that are used throughout life. The hormones in the pituitary
signal to the male and female reproductive parts to start developing the
adult male and female characteristics. The hypothalamus gland regulates
the output of the pituitary gland. It is the pituitary that signals
the testes (male gland) to produce testosterone which tells a male body
to grow hair, increase bone growth, have greater muscle strength, and a
deeper voice. The hormones, estrogen and progesterone from the pituitary
gland, regulate the work of the female's ovaries. Estrogens are important
in the development of the adult female. Progesterone along with estrogen
is needed to prepare a female body for pregnancy.
- If you feel the students lack an understanding,
we suggest you do some of the exercises for the lower grades. Use the
Human biology slideshow to review all the systems.
- Go over the worksheet with the student. See what parts
they know already before showing them the location of each of the organ.
Please note, that students at this age will “giggle,” but if taught in
a straight forward scientific way, the giggles will turn into curiosity.
- Students will undoubtedly have questions. We suggest
that you have available books on the human body. You may want
students to do a research paper. It is so important for them to realize
that their bodies are human machines with all parts working together to
produce an effective and efficient product.