The following helps guide students
inquiry using each of the items listed in materials.
TOUR OF BUBBLE -
Have the students flip the tube over when the bubbles stop moving. As
the students are doing the lab make sure they observe the shape of
bubbles and how they move. Air is trapped on one side and when you flip
it over the air, since it is lighter will rise through the denser
liquid. This illustrates Archimedes's principle, which explains why
- Have the students flip the tube over when the timer inside reaches the
top. Students should try to decide if the sand in the timer has anything
to do with the movement. It does not, the timer is actually just a
bubble, which illustrates Archimedes' principle as in the Tour of
- Have the students watch one liquid displace the other liquid as you
keep flipping this density timer. One liquid is heavier than the other
and falls through, but it also displaces the less dense liquid and
pushes it upward. This is Pascal's principle in action. The stream of
liquid continues as drops when all the air is pushed up. As the air is
pushed up it makes it look like a volcano, because the air is the least
dense of all so it moves quickly through both liquids.
WAVE MACHINE -
similar to Density Timer
TORNADO TUBE -
You must get two containers (plastic liters from soda). Fill one of the
bottles ½ to 3/4 full of water. You may want to put a little bleach to
prevent bacterial build up and food coloring (to look better).
Demonstrate to the students a few times how to swirl the top of the
bottom and the water will rush down. The connection, where the two
bottles are joined, increases the fluid velocity. The pressure is then
released once the water goes through the constriction and slows down.
The vortex that pushed the liquid through the tube is maintained. This
is an example of Bernoulli's principle, but this one is difficult to
fully understand. Remember these exercises are to just show students
different types of fluids.
TORNADO BOTTLES -
This also illustrates Bernoulli's principle.
Students should throw the glider and see what happens. Have the students
take the nose piece off and have them throw it. Notice that the motion
is circular without the nose cone. Bernoulli's principle is at work.
- Hold the puddle jumper firmly at the back of your left palm with your
right fingertips. Make sure your fingers are straight and rigid. Keep
your thumbs down. Always point the puddle jumper away from yourself and
others. Tilt the puddle jumper forward, away from yourself at an angle.
The puddle jumper will fly in the direction the stick is pointing the
propeller. Keep it pointed forward while you spin it so it flies forward
when you let it go. You must spin the puddle jumper counter clockwise.
Launch it with only one stroke. Always push your right hand forward.
Squeeze the stick and roll it forward to spin the propeller. Keep
squeezing all the way down your left hand as you spin the stick. Spread
your hands apart to release the stick as you roll past your left
fingertips. Lift is the force that pushes the puddle jumper upward
through the air. When you spin the propeller the energy is stored as
momentum by the mass or weight of the propeller. It will continue to
climb higher and higher until it is overcame by the forces of friction
and gravity. Bernoulli's principle contributes to the lift.
TIMES UP - Have the students
turn the item and watch the particles move. The particles are lighter
than the liquid. The principle is like the density timer, except one of
the mediums is not liquid. The liquid is heavier than the particles and
falls through, but it also displaces the less dense particles and pushes
them upward. This is Pascal's principle in action.
HAND BOILER -
A student should hold the hand boiler in the palm of their hand. They
should hold the bottom chamber, but not squeeze it. The liquid will move
upwards and looks like it is boiling, but it is not. The heat of a warm
hand will affect the molecules of the liquid and make them expand. This
changes the pressure in the bottom chamber. The pressure than forces the
liquid to rise first and then the air that is trapped in the chamber
also will rise. When the air moves into the liquid it makes it look like
you are making it boil. This is an example of Pascal's principle with
the air in the tube acting like a fluid. CAUTION: This toy is made of
glass, students should handle with care.
Students should blow into the pipe and try and balance the ball so it
looks like it is floating. Bernoulli's principle is being demonstrated.
The movement of the air (fluid movement) causes pressure to be greater
under the ball and less on the top of the ball. This pressure lifts the