are important concept to understand because it
can change the distance measured. Compasses and protractors
help our eyes to determine the angle. A protractor is an instrument that
looks like a semicircle marked with degrees from 0 to 180. It
was initially developed to plot positions of boats at sea, so 90 degrees would
be straight up to the heavens (zenith), and 0E and 180E would represent
the horizon (azimuth).
Mathematical relationships can measure very accurately if you can measure some portion of a shape. A good example is the Pythagorean Theorem, which measures the longest side if you know two other sides created by a right angle.
Volume is the amount of space occupied measured in cubic units (i.e., m3) for solids and liters and milliliters for liquid. The capacity of a container refers to the potential for holding or storing and usually is measured in liters and milliliters in the metric system and ounces and gallons in the English system. The conversion to capacity and volume is simple. One liter is equivalent to a cubic meter. The same volume of two different substances may have different weight and mass. Beakers, graduated cylinders, Erlenmeyer flasks, and other calibrated glassware measure volume. Mathematical equations of solids are the easiest way to determine volume.