Electronic Text and Laboratory Exercises

Joyce R. Blueford, Ph.D.


ART WORK: Joyce R. Blueford, Scott Hassler
: Doris Raia
WEB DESIGN: David Lundeen, Doris Raia


Scott Hassler, Ph.D. Geology
Joy Lopez, M.S. Technology Education
Eleanor Kohnen, B.S. Biology
Christine Souza, M.A. Business


The labs in the secondary school science were originally created for junior high students in the Ravenswood School District, East Palo Alto, California. As more children in the district participated in the K-6 Integrated Science, Math, and Technology program there was a need for a challenging junior high program. Hewlett Packard had generously donated funds to create a new laboratory classroom. The district, under Superintendent Charlie May Knight contracted out to the Math/Science Nucleus to create a hands-on experience for students twice week to go along with the California Science Framework.

Our goal was to work with the Ravenswood teachers, to get their feedback as we piloted with students. Drs. James Gonzales and Joyce Blueford worked with the teachers and content consultants to create a series of initial labs. For over 5 years we refined and developed the labs.

Consequently other school districts that used our program urged us to continue refining the lesson plans. Over the last 10 years several teachers have continued to use and help refine the materials, notability Eleanor Kohnen (St. Joseph’s School, Fremont) and Joy Lopez (Holy Spirit, Fremont).

The Earth Science labs and electronic text were adapted from a college freshman class in geology. Dr. Blueford had realized that many college students did not have the basic skills to enjoy Earth Sciences. These labs and electronic text were designed to prepare students to understand and enjoy the Earth around them.


We would also like to thank the following organizations, companies, and individuals who have provided graphics for this electronic version.


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