Form and structure of many organisms have a similar design and use. Comparing and contrasting these systems is very important, because if you know one system you can deduce or infer what the function of that system is. These activities allow students to use what they used in the first semester to figure out other organisms. Reference material is also used.
Biological life somehow adapts to its environment. In order to see "adaption" students must first realize that you must compare biological systems.
In lab 30, you will have students compare the circulatory systems of several different organisms. they will first need to look at reference material in order to get some idea of what to compare. Then they will look at preserved animals around the room. What they should notice is that large organisms are a more complicated system. They will need their reference material throughout the lab.
In lab 31, students will examine specimens of different snails in order to interpret where and how the organisms lived. They will have to use the shell morphology for clues. they will see that there are many types of shapes. The smaller flat ones can live on the surface of the bottoms and the more spiral ones can live burrowed in the mud.
In lab 32, students are asked to graph a biological form in two coordinate systems.. This will help students begin understanding that sometimes just one change forces another change. In lab 33, students will expand on this idea, by experimenting with an "evolving" snapazoo.
ADAPTATIONS- COMPARING THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
Objective: Comparing circulatory systems of different organisms.
MATERIALS: reference materials, preserved animals
BACKGROUND INFORMATION ON ACTIVITY:
The circulatory system delivers materials to every part of an animal's body and picks up wastes.
In land snails, shrimp, and insects blood flows from vessels into large open spaces between organs called sinuses. Blood slowly moves through these spaces until it returns to the heart. In land snails blood picks up oxygen in the lungs, and in the shrimp oxygen is picked up from the gills. In insects blood does not carry oxygen to cells because it is supplied through the tracheal tubes.
Fish hearts have only one atrium and one ventricle. After blood is pumped out of the heart, it goes to the gills, where gases are exchanged. From the gills, blood circulates to all parts of the body. Veins carry blood back to the heart.
In many amphibians and reptiles the heart has three chambers. In both types of animals the right atrium is completely separated from the left by a muscular wall. In amphibians the ventricle is one open chamber and in most reptiles the ventricle is only partially divided. When the ventricle pumps blood, some of it goes to the lungs and the rest goes to all the other cells in the body.
Like humans and giraffes, birds and mice have four chambered hearts. Because so much energy is needed for flying, the blood supply to the bird's wings is specially rich. In large birds, such as turkeys, the heart beats 100 times a minute, in small active birds it can beat 500 times a minute. Normally your heart beats about 72 times a minute. But when you exercise, your heartbeat increases and more oxygen rich blood is delivered to your muscles.
First students should look at 10 different specimens of their choice, unless you have certain specimens you wish to show. Have them predict their circulatory system and then have them research whether their observations are true.
ADAPTATIONS- COMPARING CIRCULATORY SYSTEMS
PROBLEM: Can you determine the type of circulatory system of an organism by observation only?
PROCEDURE: Look at the preserved animals in the classroom. Choose 10 of them and try to figure out the circulatory system. Record your findings. Then, using the reference material provided by your teacher, see if you are correct.
MATERIALS: 10 different gastropod shells that show morphological differences
Gastropods belong to the Mollusca Phylum. They differ from other groups in that they have a spiral shell that reflect a spiralling during their larval stages.
In this activity students are given several different gastropods and they try to interpret why this particular snail has that form.
Gastropods have undergone a remarkable adaptive radiation. Some are live in the water and some live on land; they have remarkable diversified food habits, and have spread to all kinds of marine and fresh water habitats. They are one of the few invertebrate groups to successfully invade the land.
The shells present some interesting problems. Some of the characteristics of shells seem functionally insignificant, but are constant for a species and appear to be genetically fixed. The shell is a mixed blessing. It provides protection, but at the expense of adding weight.
There are many reasons for the different types of shells, but no one knows the definitive answer of exactly why. In this activity the important concept for students is to realize that there are many shapes...and that they can begin to ask why.
Students will examine specimens of different snails. They will interpret where and how the organisms lived. They will have to use the shell morphology for clues.
Have reference materials available, so students can find out if they are right or not.
PROBLEM: Why do gastropods have so many different shapes of shells?
MATERIALS: 10 gastropod specimens
Look at each of the specimens. Draw the outer shape of each of them in the space provided below. Can you come up with any reason for these shapes. Write your questions under conclusions.
ADAPTATIONS- MATH AND DESIGN
Objective: Understanding the evolutionary process of different species.
PROBLEM: Can changing coordinates on a graph help us to extrapolate?
PROCEDURE: Transform the porcupine fish into another organisms by transferring the picture. Try and draw the resulting fish.
ADAPTATIONS- CREATING A MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGE
BACKGROUND INFORMATION ON ACTIVITY:
Transformation of shape seems to be a clue on how organisms may evolve. Geneticists think that just one change in the genetic material could cause a change in the structural features of organisms, leading into an evolutionary change over time.
Biological change is diversity is all around us. You may want to go over with your students the different types of organisms they see today and how structure and form play an important part in their classification.
In this activity students will be using a "snapazoo" to try and create as many creatures as they can. It has been documented that there are 25 different animals that can be created. See how many your students can find. Although this is a fun activity, it does have them think on how to design organisms.
The snapazoo was invented by an artist, that uses a bilateral symmetrical body plan to create these organisms. Although this is not evolution, it shows students how transformations can occur in nature.
Students are given a snapazoo per group. They have to create as many organisms as they can. Even imaginary ones! Tell students that the snapazoo is bilaterally symmetrical, which is one of the reasons that you can create so many different organisms. Remind them that most organisms are bilateral in symmetry, even us!
If they need more room have them draw it on the back of the sheet.
PROBLEM: How can genetics change an organism?
Try and create as many organisms as you can. Name and describe them.
name describe or draw